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HSK词汇题解题指南
HSK词汇题解题指南

HSK词汇题解题指南
Guide to Problem Solutions of the Vocabulary Part of the HSK Test

在HSK试卷中,词汇是一个非常重要的测试内容,也是我们的读者十分重视的一个方面。要想答好HSK试卷的词汇题,最重要的当然是尽可能多地在平时的学习中扩大自己的词汇量,掌握好常用词汇的读音、词性,尤其是词义。当然,了解HSK试卷的一些特点及答题的技巧,可以帮助自己有针对复习和答题,从而提高考试成绩。

The Chinese vocabulary deserves due attention from our readers as it constitutes a very important part in the HSK test.For a desirable test result,it is advisable for the reader to be familiar with the characteristics of the HSK test paper andtest techniques,apart from a fairly good mastery of the vocabulary including thepronunciations,the parts of speech and the meanings of the words.

一、试卷词汇题的构成和特点
Format and Characteristics of the Vocabulary Questions

HSK词汇题主要集中在阅读理解的第一部分和综合填空的第一部分。这两部分的词汇题又各有测试重点。

The vocabulary questions are mainly included in the first part of reading Comprehension and Blank Filling of the HSK test.

1.阅读理解第一部分中的词汇题
Vocabulary questions in the first part of Reading Comprehension

这一部分主要是测试学生两方面的能力:a.在特定的定语境中对多义词词义
的判断能力;b.根据上下文意思推断词义的能力。

This part mainly tests the students’abilities in the following two aspects:a.
understanding the different meanings of polysemous words in certain contexts,and
b.inferring meanings from the contexts.

从词性来看,这部分的词主要是名词、动词、形容词、副词和一些常用习语。看一个例子:
eg:
Mostly,nouns,verbs,adjectives,adverbs and idioms are tested in this part,

[1]她爱人带着孩子去南方了。
A.丈夫
B.妻子
C.男朋友
D.喜欢的人

这个题显然是测试对名词“爱人”意义的理解。
To solve this problem,the correct comprehension of the noun“爱人”is required.

从难度来看,一般60%一70%选自甲、乙级词,30%左右是丙级词,另有5%左右选自三级词以外。不过,乙级词最多。

In terms of difficulty,60%-70%of the words tested in this part are selected
from the phases A and B,about 30%from Phase C,and the rest 5%from else.
where.Most of the words are from Phase B.

从形式来看,如果一个题目中划线词是高频词(如甲级词),那么备选答案一定是低频词(如丙级词)。反之,如果题目中划线词是低频词(如丙级词),那么备选答案一定是高频词(如甲、乙级词)。看下面的例子:

If the word underlined in a question is a frequenfly used word(a word from
Phase A),then the words provided for choice are usually not frequently used ones
(words from Phase C).On the other hand,if the word underlined is not a common
words(from Phase C),the words for choice are usually commonly used ones(the
words from the phases A and B).e.g.

[2]我们的意见他根本不听。
A.反映
B.接受
C.理解
D.怀疑

题中的划线词“听”是高频词,是学生很熟悉的,而备选词的使用频率则相对较低。

In the above example,“听”is a common word,while the words for choice are not
SO frequently used.

[3]这几年,他们家买了冰箱,添了彩电,日子过得挺美。
A.够
B.方便
C.满意
D.漂亮

题中划线的“美”是低频词,几个备选答案则是高频词。
Here,“美”is not a common word,but the words for choice are quite common.

综合填空第一部分的词汇题
2
Vocabulary questions in the first part of Blank Filling
丽买的这一件,又美观,又142。

141.
A.精确
B.精致
142.
A.实用
B.实在
两组备选词因为分别含有“精”和“实”,
A.精彩
B.实际
C.精神
D.实惠

不一定有联系。这就需要考生能够抗干扰,准确地辨别。
The two sets of words provided for choice contain“精”and“实”respectively and
their likeliness to each other will probably make the students confused.However,
they are not necessarily related to each other in meanings.The students,therefore,are required to distinguish them correctly.

此外,还有其他类型的题目,比如不同词性的词在一起,要求准确地选择
Moreover,the students should also pay attention to the different parts ofspeech of the words.

二、答题技巧
Test Techniques

1.注意利用句子提供的语言环
句子的组成部分可以为我们提供答题的线索。根据这样的线索就可以推断划线词的意思。看例子:

The students should make a good use of the language situation as it very often
provides a hint for deducing the correct meaning of the word underlined,eg.

This part mainly tests the students’abilities to understand the language in the context and to differentiate synonyms,near synonyms and the words with similarforms,e.g.

这一部分主要是考核学生对上下文的理解能力和对反义词、近义词甚至是形近词的辨析能力。

141——142

昨天我们去参观了一个展览,展览会上的工艺品件件都 141,尤其是玛 [4]人们总是帮助自己喜欢的人,而对自己厌恶的人,情况则完全不同。

A.害怕
B.有好感
C.不认识
D.不喜欢

假如你没有学过“厌恶”这个词,没关系,上下文可以帮助你。前面是说“总是帮助自己喜欢的人”,后面说“情况则完全不同”,这种环境实际告诉我们,前后的情况是相反的,和“自己喜欢的人”相反的当然应该是“自己不喜欢的人”,所以“厌恶”应该是“不喜欢”的意思,答案是D。可见语言环境很重要,应该充分利用。Here,the context“总是帮助自己喜欢的人”and“情况则完全不同”are very helpful to those not familiar with the word“厌恶”,as they imply that the oppositeto“自己喜欢的人”must be“自己不喜欢的人”.Therefore,the correct choice“D.不喜欢”can be easily made.

2.注意正确使用排除法

排除法就是根据自己已经掌握的知识排除掉不可能的答案,使目标范围缩小的方法。运用好排除法是提高答题效果的关键。看例子:

Another technique that works very effectively is to rule out the choices thatare obviously wrong so that there are less possibilities left for the correctanswer,eg:

143——144

甲:饭菜都摆好了,大家143吧。
乙:来来来,大伙儿举杯,干杯!
丙:找个144的机会,再叫上王文,到我家好好聚一聚。
甲:好极了。

143.
A.动作
B.动员
C.动手
D.动身

144.
A.适用
B.适应
C.适合
D.适当

这段对话是一个吃饭的环境,因此跟表示“出发”意思的“动身”没关系,跟“动员”(劝别人做某事)的意思也没关系。排除了143的B和D,再看剩下的A和C,根据已经了解的知识,“动作”这个词一般是作名词用,而“大家……吧”这个结构里应该是用动词,这样又排除了A,143的答案只能是C。

Since this dialogue is about some people who are eating at a table,it isobvious that“动身”(1 43.D)which means“出发”and“动员”(1 43.B 1 which means“to talk someone into doing something”have nothing to do with the situation.So these two can be ruled out.Then,for the structure“大家……吧”,a verb is needed.Therefore,the noun“动作”(143.A)is not suit.able.Only 143.C is the correct answer.

从上面的例子中可以看出,运用好排除法对于答好试卷会有很大的帮助。当然,在准备考试的时候,最重要的还是要尽量多地了解和掌握那些意义相同
或相近(同义词和近义词)、词形相像的词的不同用法。

From the above examples,it can be seen clearly that test techniques will be ofgreat help.However,it is more important for the students to have a good command
of the vocabulary including synonyms and those words that look alike but are different in meanings(synonyms and near synonyms).

 

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